Ancient deutsch

ancient deutsch

Übersetzung für 'ancient' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzungen für ancient im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: ancient, since ancient times, ancient history, ancient Rome, in ancient times. Übersetzung für 'Ancient' im kostenlosen Spanisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele Schaue in den Beispielsätzen nach, um den "Ancient" im Kontext zu sehen.

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Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ancient Greek. Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch since ancient times. Ancient legends tell, that waterelves lived in these waters. The Horst-Goertz-Endowment Institute focusses its research and teaching on the theory, history, and ethics of Chinese life sciences, with an emphasis on the philological translation of seminal texts of ancient Chinese medicine, as well as the comparative history of ideas and bioethics in East Asia and Europe.. Iran ruled the Middle East in ancient times, and for five hundred years in medieval times.

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Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Alte Runen dagegen ist ein faszinierendes Fach. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme. Ancient Bajoran cities were built around them. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch ancient world. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch this ancient tradition stretches back hundreds of years. Beispiele für die Übersetzung uralt ansehen Adjektiv Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Classical Archaeology also uses scientific methods archaeometry and cooperates closely with related academic disciplines like pre- and early history, ancient history and classical philology as well as art history.. 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Kleine alte Städte wechseln sich ab mit scheinbar endlosen Wiesen- und Waldlandschaften, Weinbergen und Gebirgsketten. Bannerträger masculine Maskulinum m. Each community shall help the other with every counsel and favour and at its own expense in the event of any assault on persons or goods within and without the valleys and to this end have sworn a solemn oath to uphold this agreement in confirmation and renewal darten sport 1 a more ancient accord. Jede Gemeinde hilft der andern mit Rat und Tat und auf eigene Kosten lottogewinn auszahlung annahmestelle Übergriffen gegen Personen oder Sachen innerhalb und ausserhalb der Täler und bekräftigt diese Vereinbarung eidlich casino friedberg Bestätigung und Erneuerung einer älteren Übereinkunft. Alte chinesische Relikte, erstanden ancient deutsch dem Schwarzmarkt. Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch the ancients pl. 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Alte Geschichte in Oldenburg interessiert sich für die Totalität des historischen Geschehens im Altertum und seine Dynamik, durch die das anfangs politisch, kulturell, sprachlich und wirtschaftlich fragmentierte Mittelmeerbecken zur Oikumene heranwuchs: Trotz unserer jüngsten Ergänzungen, haben wir die alten klassischen chinesischen gehalten Architektur intakt für einen Zen-ähnlichen feel. Ancient mosques and monasteries riddle the countryside. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Vor kurzem konnten wir das M. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. Uralte Legenden erzählen, dass dort Wasserelfen in dem Wasser lebten.

Genetics, 2 , pp. Freshly excavated fossil bones are best for amplification of ancient DNA. Electrophoresis, 20 8 , pp.

Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Annual Review of Genetics. Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Retrieved December 1, Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 18 January The presence of multiple Bacillus anthracis strains in different victims".

Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 21 September Retrieved April 23, Acta Sci Nat Univ Pekinensis Mitochondrial DNA haplotype and sequence analysis of historic Choctaw and Menominee hair shaft samples.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Hymenoptera in 25—40 million year old amber". Hymenoptera isolated from 25—40 million year old Dominican amber".

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in calcified pleura from remains years old. Lett Appl Microbiol Jones, Martin , Unlocking the Past: Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the " Walls-of-the-Ruler ", to defend against foreign attack.

In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom displayed an increase in expressions of personal piety.

The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III , allowed Semitic -speaking Canaanite settlers from the Near East into the Delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns.

These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties.

During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to assume greater control of the Delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.

The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute. They and other invaders introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.

The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the Mitanni Empire, Assyria , and Canaan.

Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.

Under Merneptah the rulers of Egypt became known as pharaohs instead of kings. Between their reigns, Hatshepsut , a queen who established herself as pharaoh, launched many building projects, including restoration of temples damaged by the Hyksos, and sent trading expenditions to Punt and the Sinai.

The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god Amun , whose growing cult was based in Karnak.

They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple ever built.

Changing his name to Akhenaten , he touted the previously obscure sun deity Aten as the supreme deity , suppressed the worship of most other deities, and moved the capital to the new city of Akhetaten modern-day Amarna.

After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned and the traditional religious order restored. Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of its remaining territories in southern Canaan , much of it falling to the Assyrians.

The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regaining their power, the high priests at the temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their expanded power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.

The south was effectively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes , who recognized Smendes in name only.

Shoshenq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis , and Kushites threatened from the south.

The reigns of both Taharqa and his successor, Tanutamun , were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians, against whom Egypt enjoyed several victories.

Ultimately, the Assyrians pushed the Kushites back into Nubia, occupied Memphis, and sacked the temples of Thebes. The Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty.

Greek influence expanded greatly as the city-state of Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the Nile Delta. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from Iran, leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy.

A few successful revolts against the Persians marked the 5th century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians. The last of these dynasties, the Thirtieth , proved to be the last native royal house of ancient Egypt, ending with the kingship of Nectanebo II.

The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria.

Hellenistic culture did not supplant native Egyptian culture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions in an effort to secure the loyalty of the populace.

They built new temples in Egyptian style, supported traditional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs. Some traditions merged, as Greek and Egyptian gods were syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis , and classical Greek forms of sculpture influenced traditional Egyptian motifs.

Despite their efforts to appease the Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native rebellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of Alexandria that formed after the death of Ptolemy IV.

Continued Egyptian revolts, ambitious politicians, and powerful opponents from the Near East made this situation unstable, leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its empire.

The Romans relied heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the Roman army , under the control of a prefect appointed by the Emperor, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which had become a notorious problem during the period.

Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued.

The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local administration became Roman in style and closed to native Egyptians.

From the mid-first century AD, Christianity took root in Egypt and it was originally seen as another cult that could be accepted.

However, it was an uncompromising religion that sought to win converts from Egyptian Religion and Greco-Roman religion and threatened popular religious traditions.

This led to the persecution of converts to Christianity, culminating in the great purges of Diocletian starting in , but eventually Christianity won out.

While the native population certainly continued to speak their language , the ability to read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished.

The temples themselves were sometimes converted to churches or abandoned to the desert. In the fourth century, as the Roman Empire divided, Egypt found itself in the Eastern Empire with its capital at Constantinople.

The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources.

The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs.

The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly controlled. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage.

Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land.

Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt, known as the "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank.

Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field.

Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear. The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress.

Married couples could own property jointly and protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage contracts, which stipulated the financial obligations of the husband to his wife and children should the marriage end.

Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement.

Despite these freedoms, ancient Egyptian women did not often take part in official roles in the administration, served only secondary roles in the temples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.

Plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves and were required to swear an oath that they had told the truth.

In some cases, the state took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a confession and the names of any co-conspirators.

Whether the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes documented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case for future reference.

Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition of fines, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending on the severity of the offense.

Serious crimes such as murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution, carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the criminal on a stake.

The procedure was to ask the god a "yes" or "no" question concerning the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an ostracon.

A combination of favorable geographical features contributed to the success of ancient Egyptian culture, the most important of which was the rich fertile soil resulting from annual inundations of the Nile River.

The ancient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance of food, allowing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits.

Land management was crucial in ancient Egypt because taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person owned.

Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River. The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet flooding , Peret planting , and Shemu harvesting.

After the floodwaters had receded, the growing season lasted from October to February. Farmers plowed and planted seeds in the fields, which were irrigated with ditches and canals.

Egypt received little rainfall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops. Winnowing removed the chaff from the grain, and the grain was then ground into flour, brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.

The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer and barley , and several other cereal grains, all of which were used to make the two main food staples of bread and beer.

These fibers were split along their length and spun into thread, which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing.

Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots, close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be watered by hand.

Vegetables included leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition to grapes that were made into wine.

The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole.

Cattle were the most important livestock; the administration collected taxes on livestock in regular censuses, and the size of a herd reflected the prestige and importance of the estate or temple that owned them.

In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry , such as ducks, geese, and pigeons, were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them.

Bees were also domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, and provided both honey and wax. The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as beasts of burden , and they were responsible for plowing the fields and trampling seed into the soil.

The slaughter of a fattened ox was also a central part of an offering ritual. Camels, although known from the New Kingdom, were not used as beasts of burden until the Late Period.

There is also evidence to suggest that elephants were briefly utilized in the Late Period but largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.

Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses. Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones.

These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry.

There were extensive gold mines in Nubia , and one of the first maps known is of a gold mine in this region. The Wadi Hammamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke , and gold.

Flint was the first mineral collected and used to make tools, and flint handaxes are the earliest pieces of evidence of habitation in the Nile valley.

Nodules of the mineral were carefully flaked to make blades and arrowheads of moderate hardness and durability even after copper was adopted for this purpose.

The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and small figurines. Copper was the most important metal for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted in furnaces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai.

Iron deposits found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late Period. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry , greywacke, alabaster , and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty.

The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt. In the Predynastic Period , they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense.

They also established trade with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.

By the Second Dynasty at latest, ancient Egyptian trade with Byblos yielded a critical source of quality timber not found in Egypt.

By the Fifth Dynasty, trade with Punt provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild animals such as monkeys and baboons.

The ancient Egyptians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli , which had to be imported from far-away Afghanistan. The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages.

Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language , but it became more analytic later on. Late Egyptian developed prefixal definite and indefinite articles , which replaced the older inflectional suffixes.

There was a change from the older verb—subject—object word order to subject—verb—object. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of the Egyptian Orthodox Church , and traces of it are found in modern Egyptian Arabic.

Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates.

It has three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Late Egyptian to about nine. Suffixes are added to form words.

The verb conjugation corresponds to the person. If the subject is a noun, suffixes are not added to the verb: Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that Egyptologists call nisbation because of its similarity with Arabic.

Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts.

Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic , which was quicker and easier.

While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction though typically written from right to left , hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows.

A new form of writing, Demotic , became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.

Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs.

As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs.

It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life.

The latter comprised offices, libraries called House of Books , laboratories and observatories. Late Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts.

During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni.

The genre known as Sebayt "instructions" was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus , a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example.

The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt.

Many stories written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day.

Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread.

Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.

The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Countries that reap the advantages of their democratic governments have the ancient Greeks to thank.

To save ancient Athenians from the economic, political and social problems created by the rich minority, lawmaker Solon introduced a government system already in vogue in Sparta, which allowed the Athenians the right to vote, and their assembly the ability to elect officials and pass laws.

Levers are a prehistoric tool to lift up heavy object with minimum effort, whose usage was mainstreamed by the ancient Greeks. Though geometric techniques were known to the ancient Egyptian, Babylonian and Indus Valley people, it were the ancient Greeks who established the geometric facts by deductive reasoning.

Thales of Miletus, Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes gave a number of geometric axioms and rules based on mathematical truths, which are still taught in schools today.

Ancient Athens was the original home of the modern trial by jury. The jurors had to be Athenian citizens and over 30 years of age; there could up to members in a jury to ensure that it was impossible to bribe the majority.

The ancient Greeks were great patrons of plays and every town had its own company and often held play competitions. Comedies, tragedies and satirical plays were all invented by the Greeks.

Pictured Theater of Dionysus Eleuthereus in Athens. The most popular collection of fables of all time was written by Aesop, believed to be a slave in ancient Greece whose storytelling won him freedom.

Headlines UK News Charity: Lighthouse The concept of guiding ships safely to the port by using light as a signal was introduced by the Greeks, who built the first lighthouse in Alexandria, Egypt, in 3rd century B.

Odometer Mechanical odometers were used in the late Hellenistic times to measure distances traveled by a vehicle. Robot Crazy though it might sound, but ancient Greek mathematician and scientist Archytas indeed invented a wooden pigeon that used compressed steam to function and was capable of flying to feet to meters at a time.

Watermill Watermills trace their history back to the Perachora wheel, a water-driven machine invented in Greece in the 3rd century B.

Alarm clock The key to reaching workplace on time for most of us, the alarm clock, too, had its origin in ancient Greece.

Maps Modern maps were introduced by ancient Greeks, before which traveling guides were vague and a lot more descriptive. Olympic games One of the biggest sporting events in the modern world owes its origin to the ancient Greeks.

It has also revealed new information about links between the ancestors of Central Asians and the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

In Africa, older DNA degrades quickly due to the warmer tropical climate, although, in September , ancient DNA samples, as old as 8, years old, have been reported.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alan Cooper Joachim Burger M. Thomas Eske Willerslev Marco Coolen. The half-life of DNA in bone: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, , pp.

Long-term persistence of bacterial DNA. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Trends in microbiology, 13 5 , pp.

Crosslinks rather than strand breaks determine access to ancient DNA sequences from frozen sediments. Genetics, 2 , pp.

Freshly excavated fossil bones are best for amplification of ancient DNA. Electrophoresis, 20 8 , pp. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Annual Review of Genetics. Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Retrieved December 1, Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 18 January The presence of multiple Bacillus anthracis strains in different victims".

Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 21 September Retrieved April 23, Acta Sci Nat Univ Pekinensis Mitochondrial DNA haplotype and sequence analysis of historic Choctaw and Menominee hair shaft samples.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Hymenoptera in 25—40 million year old amber". Hymenoptera isolated from 25—40 million year old Dominican amber".

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in calcified pleura from remains years old. Lett Appl Microbiol Jones, Martin , Unlocking the Past: Acta Sci Nat Univ Pekinensis.

The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.

In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were covered in treed savanna and traversed by herds of grazing ungulates.

Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.

The largest of these early cultures in upper Southern Egypt was the Badari , which probably originated in the Western Desert; it was known for its high quality ceramics, stone tools , and its use of copper.

As early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia , used to shape blades and other objects from flakes.

The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases , cosmetic palettes , and jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory.

They also developed a ceramic glaze known as faience , which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.

The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contemporary to the early Sumerian - Akkadian civilisation of Mesopotamia and of ancient Elam.

The third-century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties, a system still used today.

He began his official history with the king named "Meni" or Menes in Greek who was believed to have united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The transition to a unified state happened more gradually than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no contemporary record of Menes.

Some scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have been the king Narmer , who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette, in a symbolic act of unification.

The increasing power and wealth of the kings during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified king after his death.

Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the Old Kingdom , fueled by the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration.

Under the direction of the vizier , state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield , drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.

With the rising importance of central administration in Egypt a new class of educated scribes and officials arose who were granted estates by the king in payment for their services.

Kings also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples, to ensure that these institutions had the resources to worship the king after his death.

Scholars believe that five centuries of these practices slowly eroded the economic vitality of Egypt, and that the economy could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.

Regional governors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes escalated into famines and small-scale civil wars.

Yet despite difficult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to the pharaoh, used their new-found independence to establish a thriving culture in the provinces.

Once in control of their own resources, the provinces became economically richer—which was demonstrated by larger and better burials among all social classes.

Free from their loyalties to the king, local rulers began competing with each other for territorial control and political power.

As the Intefs grew in power and expanded their control northward, a clash between the two rival dynasties became inevitable.

They inaugurated a period of economic and cultural renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the " Walls-of-the-Ruler ", to defend against foreign attack.

In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom displayed an increase in expressions of personal piety. The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III , allowed Semitic -speaking Canaanite settlers from the Near East into the Delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns.

These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties.

During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to assume greater control of the Delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.

The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute. They and other invaders introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.

The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the Mitanni Empire, Assyria , and Canaan.

Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.

Under Merneptah the rulers of Egypt became known as pharaohs instead of kings. Between their reigns, Hatshepsut , a queen who established herself as pharaoh, launched many building projects, including restoration of temples damaged by the Hyksos, and sent trading expenditions to Punt and the Sinai.

The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god Amun , whose growing cult was based in Karnak.

They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple ever built.

Changing his name to Akhenaten , he touted the previously obscure sun deity Aten as the supreme deity , suppressed the worship of most other deities, and moved the capital to the new city of Akhetaten modern-day Amarna.

After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned and the traditional religious order restored. Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of its remaining territories in southern Canaan , much of it falling to the Assyrians.

The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regaining their power, the high priests at the temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their expanded power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.

The south was effectively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes , who recognized Smendes in name only. Shoshenq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions.

Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis , and Kushites threatened from the south. The reigns of both Taharqa and his successor, Tanutamun , were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians, against whom Egypt enjoyed several victories.

Ultimately, the Assyrians pushed the Kushites back into Nubia, occupied Memphis, and sacked the temples of Thebes. The Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty.

Greek influence expanded greatly as the city-state of Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the Nile Delta. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from Iran, leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy.

A few successful revolts against the Persians marked the 5th century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.

The last of these dynasties, the Thirtieth , proved to be the last native royal house of ancient Egypt, ending with the kingship of Nectanebo II.

The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria.

Hellenistic culture did not supplant native Egyptian culture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions in an effort to secure the loyalty of the populace.

They built new temples in Egyptian style, supported traditional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs.

Some traditions merged, as Greek and Egyptian gods were syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis , and classical Greek forms of sculpture influenced traditional Egyptian motifs.

Despite their efforts to appease the Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native rebellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of Alexandria that formed after the death of Ptolemy IV.

Continued Egyptian revolts, ambitious politicians, and powerful opponents from the Near East made this situation unstable, leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its empire.

The Romans relied heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the Roman army , under the control of a prefect appointed by the Emperor, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which had become a notorious problem during the period.

Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued.

The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local administration became Roman in style and closed to native Egyptians.

From the mid-first century AD, Christianity took root in Egypt and it was originally seen as another cult that could be accepted. However, it was an uncompromising religion that sought to win converts from Egyptian Religion and Greco-Roman religion and threatened popular religious traditions.

This led to the persecution of converts to Christianity, culminating in the great purges of Diocletian starting in , but eventually Christianity won out.

While the native population certainly continued to speak their language , the ability to read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished.

The temples themselves were sometimes converted to churches or abandoned to the desert. In the fourth century, as the Roman Empire divided, Egypt found itself in the Eastern Empire with its capital at Constantinople.

The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs.

The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly controlled. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage.

Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land.

Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt, known as the "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank.

Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.

The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress.

Married couples could own property jointly and protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage contracts, which stipulated the financial obligations of the husband to his wife and children should the marriage end.

Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement.

Despite these freedoms, ancient Egyptian women did not often take part in official roles in the administration, served only secondary roles in the temples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.

Plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves and were required to swear an oath that they had told the truth.

In some cases, the state took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a confession and the names of any co-conspirators.

Whether the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes documented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case for future reference.

Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition of fines, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending on the severity of the offense. Serious crimes such as murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution, carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the criminal on a stake.

The procedure was to ask the god a "yes" or "no" question concerning the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an ostracon.

A combination of favorable geographical features contributed to the success of ancient Egyptian culture, the most important of which was the rich fertile soil resulting from annual inundations of the Nile River.

The ancient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance of food, allowing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits.

Land management was crucial in ancient Egypt because taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person owned. Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River.

The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet flooding , Peret planting , and Shemu harvesting. After the floodwaters had receded, the growing season lasted from October to February.

Farmers plowed and planted seeds in the fields, which were irrigated with ditches and canals. Egypt received little rainfall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops.

Winnowing removed the chaff from the grain, and the grain was then ground into flour, brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.

The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer and barley , and several other cereal grains, all of which were used to make the two main food staples of bread and beer.

These fibers were split along their length and spun into thread, which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing.

Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots, close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be watered by hand.

Vegetables included leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition to grapes that were made into wine. The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole.

Cattle were the most important livestock; the administration collected taxes on livestock in regular censuses, and the size of a herd reflected the prestige and importance of the estate or temple that owned them.

In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry , such as ducks, geese, and pigeons, were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them.

Bees were also domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, and provided both honey and wax. The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as beasts of burden , and they were responsible for plowing the fields and trampling seed into the soil.

The slaughter of a fattened ox was also a central part of an offering ritual. Camels, although known from the New Kingdom, were not used as beasts of burden until the Late Period.

There is also evidence to suggest that elephants were briefly utilized in the Late Period but largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.

Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses. Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones.

These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry. There were extensive gold mines in Nubia , and one of the first maps known is of a gold mine in this region.

The Wadi Hammamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke , and gold. Flint was the first mineral collected and used to make tools, and flint handaxes are the earliest pieces of evidence of habitation in the Nile valley.

Nodules of the mineral were carefully flaked to make blades and arrowheads of moderate hardness and durability even after copper was adopted for this purpose.

The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and small figurines.

Copper was the most important metal for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted in furnaces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai.

Iron deposits found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late Period. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry , greywacke, alabaster , and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty.

The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt. In the Predynastic Period , they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense.

They also established trade with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.

By the Second Dynasty at latest, ancient Egyptian trade with Byblos yielded a critical source of quality timber not found in Egypt. By the Fifth Dynasty, trade with Punt provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild animals such as monkeys and baboons.

The ancient Egyptians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli , which had to be imported from far-away Afghanistan.

The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages. Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language , but it became more analytic later on.

Late Egyptian developed prefixal definite and indefinite articles , which replaced the older inflectional suffixes.

There was a change from the older verb—subject—object word order to subject—verb—object. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of the Egyptian Orthodox Church , and traces of it are found in modern Egyptian Arabic.

Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates.

It has three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Late Egyptian to about nine. Suffixes are added to form words.

The verb conjugation corresponds to the person. If the subject is a noun, suffixes are not added to the verb: Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that Egyptologists call nisbation because of its similarity with Arabic.

Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts.

Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic , which was quicker and easier.

While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction though typically written from right to left , hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows.

A new form of writing, Demotic , became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.

Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs.

As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs.

It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life.

The latter comprised offices, libraries called House of Books , laboratories and observatories. Late Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts.

During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni.

The genre known as Sebayt "instructions" was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus , a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example.

The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt.

Many stories written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day.

Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.

The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk.

Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin.

Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved.

Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular.

In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia. The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music.

Senet , a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen , which had a circular gaming board.

The first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhat IV that dates to the 13th Dynasty. The excavation of the workers village of Deir el-Medina has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world, which spans almost four hundred years.

There is no comparable site in which the organization, social interactions, working and living conditions of a community have been studied in such detail.

Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients.

The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs.

Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.

The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the wide-ranging power of the pharaoh.

The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using only simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with great accuracy and precision that is still envied today.

The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived.

Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite and the pharaoh were more elaborate structures. A few surviving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna , show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs.

The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples , such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns.

The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.

The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes. For over years, artists adhered to artistic forms and iconography that were developed during the Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that resisted foreign influence and internal change.

Images and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and temple walls, coffins, stelae, and even statues. The Narmer Palette , for example, displays figures that can also be read as hieroglyphs.

Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone as a medium for carving statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute.

Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores red and yellow ochres , copper ores blue and green , soot or charcoal black , and limestone white.

Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed. Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes.

Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art , such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.

In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.

Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes.

Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings.

The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers.

The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system.

At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship.

Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos. As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.

The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects.

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